Jul 142013
 

1st DUKE OF MARBOROUGH

He was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs. Rising from a lowly page at the court of the House of Stuart, he served James, Duke of York, through the 1670s and early 1680s, earning military and political advancement through his courage and diplomatic skill. Churchill role in defeating the Monmouth Rebellion in 1685 helped secure James on the throne, canada goose outlet website legit yet just three years later he abandoned his Catholic patron for the Protestant Dutchman, William of Orange. Honoured for his services at William coronation with the earldom of Marlborough, he served with further distinction in the early years of the Nine Years War, but persistent charges canada goose outlet kokemuksia of Jacobitism brought about his fall from office and temporary imprisonment in the Tower. It was not until the accession of Queen Anne in 1702 that Marlborough reached the zenith of his powers and secured his fame and fortune. His marriage to the hot tempered Sarah Jennings Anne intimate friend ensured Marlborough rise, first to the Captain Generalcy of British forces, then to a dukedom. Becoming de facto leader of Allied forces during the War of the Spanish Succession, his victories on the fields of Blenheim (1704), Ramillies (1706), Oudenarde (1708), and Malplaquet (1709), ensured his place in history as one of Europe great generals. But his wife stormy relationship with the Queen, and her subsequent dismissal from court, was central to his own fall. Incurring Anne disfavour, and caught between Tory and Whig factions, Marlborough, who had brought glory and success to Anne reign, was forced from office and went into self imposed exile. He returned to England and to influence under the House of Hanover with the accession of George I to the British throne in 1714. Marlborough insatiable ambition made him the richest of all Anne subjects. His family connections wove him into the fabric of European politics (his sister Arabella became James II mistress, and their son, the Duke of Berwick, emerged as one of Louis XIV greatest Marshals). His leadership of the allied armies consolidated Britain emergence as a front rank power. He successfully maintained unity among the allies, thereby demonstrating his diplomatic skills. Throughout ten consecutive campaigns during the Spanish Succession war Marlborough held together a discordant coalition through his sheer force of personality and raised the standing of British arms to a level not known since the Middle Ages. Although in the end he could not compel total capitulation from his enemies, his victories allowed Britain to rise from a minor to a major power, ensuring the country growing prosperity throughout the 18th century. Churchill was the son of Sir Winston Churchill (1620 1688) of Glanvilles Wootton in Dorset, by his wife Elizabeth Drake, 4th daughter of Sir John Drake (died 1636) of Ash in the parish of Musbury in Devon.[3] The Churchill family are stated by the Devon historian Hoskins (1954) to have originated at the estate of Churchill, in the parish of Broadclyst in Devon, during the reign of King Henry II (1154 1189) Ash House was the antient seat of the Drakes, It was then in use as a farmhouse. This is the house re built by Sir John Drake, 1st Baronet (1625 1669) after its near destruction during the Civil War. At the end of the English Civil War Lady Drake was joined at her Devon home, Ash House in the parish of Musbury, by her fourth daughter Elizabeth Drake and her husband Winston Churchill (1620 1688), a Royalist cavalry captain. Unlike his mother in law who had supported the Parliamentary cause, Winston had the misfortune of fighting on the losing side of the war for which he, like so many other Cavaliers, was forced to compound; in his case 446 18s.[6] Although Winston had paid off the fine by 1651, it had impoverished him. From this episode may derive the Churchill family motto: Fiel Pero Desdichado (“Faithful but Unfortunate”). The two younger sons were George Churchill (1654 1710), an admiral in the Royal Navy, and Charles Churchill (1656 1714), a general who served on campaign in Europe with his eldest brother John. Little is known of John Churchill childhood about which he left no written description, but growing up in these impoverished conditions at Ashe, with family tensions soured by conflicting allegiances, may have made a lasting impression on the young Churchill. His descendant and biographer the canada goose outlet las vegas Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill, asserted that the conditions at Ashe “might well have aroused in his mind two prevailing impressions: first a hatred of poverty. and secondly the need of hiding thoughts and feelings from those to whom their expression would be repugnant.”[9] After the Restoration of King Charles II in 1660 his father fortunes took a turn for the better, although he remained far from prosperous.[10] In 1661, Winston became Member of Parliament canada goose outlet miami for Weymouth, and as a mark of royal favour he received rewards for losses incurred fighting against the Parliamentarians during the civil war, including the appointment as a Commissioner for Irish Land Claims in Dublin in 1661. When Winston departed for Ireland the following year, John enrolled at the Dublin Free School; but by 1664, following his father recall to the position of Junior Clerk Comptroller of the King Household at Whitehall, John had transferred his studies to St Paul School in London. The King own penury meant the old Cavaliers received scant financial reward, but the prodigal monarch could offer something which would cost him nothing positions at canada goose outlet sale court for their progeny. Thus in 1665 Arabella became Maid of Honour to Anne Hyde, the Duchess of York. Some months later Arabella brother John joined her at court, serving as page to Anne husband, James, Duke of York,[11] the brother of the King. The Duke of York passion for all things naval and military rubbed off on young Churchill. In a rude contrast to life at court, Churchill stayed here for three years, gaining first class tactical training and field experience skirmishing with the Moors. Back in London by February 1671, Churchill handsome features and manner described by Lord Chesterfield canada goose outlet uk as “irresistible to either man or woman” had soon attracted the ravenous attentions of one of the King most noteworthy mistresses, Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland.[15] But his liaisons with the insatiable temptress were indeed dangerous. In 1672 Churchill went to sea again. While fighting the Dutch navy at the Battle of Solebay off the Suffolk coast in June, valorous conduct aboard the Duke of York flagship, the Prince, earned Churchill promotion (above the resentful heads of more senior officers) to a captaincy in the Admiralty Regiment.[19] The following year Churchill gained a further commendation at the Siege of Maastricht when the young captain distinguished himself as part of the 30 man forlorn hope, successfully capturing and defending part of the fortress. During this incident Churchill is credited with saving the Duke of Monmouth life, receiving a slight wound in the process but gaining further praise from a grateful House of Stuart, as well as recognition from the House of Bourbon. King Louis XIV in person commended the deed, from which time forward bore Churchill an enviable reputation for physical courage, as well as earning the high regard of the common soldier. Although Charles II anti French Parliament had forced England to withdraw from the Franco Dutch War in 1674, some English regiments remained in French service. In April Churchill was appointed the colonelcy canada goose outlet store toronto of one such regiment, thereafter serving with, and learning from, the great Marshal Turenne. Churchill was present at the hard fought battles of Sinsheim in June 1674, and Enzheim in October; he may also have been present at Sasbach in July 1675, where Turenne was killed.[21] On his return to St. James Palace, Churchill attention was drawn towards other matters, and to a fresh face at court. “I beg you will let me see you as often as you can,” pleaded Churchill in a letter to Sarah Jennings, “which I am sure you ought to do if you care for my love.”[22] Sarah Jennings social origins were in many ways similar to Churchill minor gentry blighted by debt induced poverty. After her father death when she was eight, Sarah, together with her mother and sisters, moved to London. As Royalist supporters (despite the fact that Sarah great uncle, James Temple, was convicted of regicide), the Jennings loyalty to the crown, like the Churchill was repaid with court employment, and in canada goose outlet seattle 1673 Sarah followed her sister Frances into the household of the Duchess of York, Mary of Modena, second wife to James, Duke canada goose outlet buffalo of York.[23] Under the Earl of Danby the government now undertook a political realignment, and prepared to enter the war against France. The new alliance with the Dutch, together with the expansion of the English army, opened important prospects for Churchill in military and diplomatic spheres. In April 1678, Churchill (accompanied by his friend and rising politician, Sidney Godolphin), departed for The Hague to negotiate a convention on the deployment of the English army in Flanders. The young diplomat essay in international statecraft proved personally successful, bringing him into contact with William, Prince of Orange, who was highly impressed by the shrewdness and courtesy of Churchill negotiating skills.[26] The assignment had helped Churchill develop a breadth of experience that other mere soldiers were never to achieve,[26] yet because of the duplicitous dealings of Charles II secret negotiations with Louis XIV (Charles had no intention of waging war against France), the mission ultimately proved abortive. In May, Churchill was appointed temporary rank of Brigadier General of Foot, but hopes of promised action on the Continent proved illusory as the warring factions sued for peace and signed the Treaty of Nijmegen.[27] When Churchill returned to England at the end of 1678 he found grievous changes in English society. The iniquities of the Popish Plot (Titus Oates fabricated conspiracy aimed at excluding the Catholic Duke of York from the English accession), meant temporary banishment for James an exile that would last nearly three years. James obliged Churchill to attend him, first to The Hague then to Brussels, before gaining permission to move to Edinburgh. Another daughter, Anne, arrived in 1684, followed by John in 1686, Elizabeth in 1687, Mary in 1689, and Charles in 1690 who lived for only two years.[30] Churchill resumed court life with enthusiasm. In July 1683 he was sent to the Continent to conduct Prince George of Denmark to England for his arranged marriage https://www.canadagooseoutletcanada.ca to the 18 year old Princess Anne, the Duke of York younger daughter. Anne lost no time in appointing Sarah of whom she had been passionately fond since childhood one of her Ladies of the Bedchamber. Their relationship continued to blossom, so much so that years later Sarah wrote “To see [me] was a constant joy; and to part with [me] for never so short a time, a constant uneasiness. This worked even to the jealousy of a lover.”[31] canada goose discount uk For his part, Churchill treated the princess with respectful affection and grew genuinely attached to her, assuming canada goose outlet winnipeg address in his reverence to royalty the chivalrous role of a knightly champion.[32] From this time forward the Churchills were increasingly detached from James Catholic inner circle and more noticeably associated with the Princess.[33] With the death of Charles II in 1685 his brother, the Catholic Duke of York, became King James II. On James succession Churchill was appointed governor of the Hudson Bay Company. He had also been affirmed Gentleman of the Bedchamber in April, and admitted to the English peerage as Baron Churchill of Sandridge in the county of Hertfordshire in May, thus giving him a seat in the House of Lords. However, the new Parliament was overshadowed by rebellion, led in Scotland by the Earl of Argyll, and in England by Charles II illegitimate son, the Duke of Monmouth, who, encouraged by malcontents and various Whig conspirators (exiled for their part in the failed Rye House plot), prepared to take what he considered rightfully his the crown of England.[34] To face Monmouth rebels Churchill was given command of the regular foot in the King army, but the honour of leading the campaign passed to the limited, yet highly loyal, Earl of Feversham. Although Churchill was subordinate to Feversham, his administrative capacity, tactical skill, and courage in battle were pivotal in the victory. Churchill was not entirely forgotten, and in August he was awarded the lucrative colonelcy of the Third Troop of Life Guards.[36] Yet according to Historian David Chandler it is possible that the Sedgemoor campaign, and its subsequent persecutions driven by the bloodthirsty zeal of Judge Jeffreys, set in train a process of disillusion that culminated in his abandonment of his king, and long time patron and friend, just three years later.[37] His master, however, had canada goose outlet locations in toronto already given him cause for anxiety. “If the King should attempt to change our religion,” he is reputed to have remarked to Lord Galway shortly after James II succession, “I will instantly quit his service.”[38] Churchill emerged from the Sedgemoor campaign with great credit, but he was anxious not to be seen as sympathetic towards the King growing religious ardour against the Protestant establishment.[39] James II promotion of Catholics in royal institutions including the army engendered first suspicion, and ultimately sedition in his mainly Protestant subjects; even members of his own family expressed alarm at the King fanatic zeal for the Roman Catholic religion.[40] When the queen gave birth to a son, James Francis Edward Stuart, it opened up the prospect of a line of successive Catholic monarchs. Some in the King service, such as the Earl of Salisbury and the Earl of Melfort, betrayed their Protestant upbringing in order to gain favour at court, but although Churchill remained true to his conscience, telling the King, “I have been bred a Protestant, and intend to live and die in that communion”, he was also motivated by self interest. Believing that the monarch policy would either wreck his own career or generate a wider insurrection, he did not intend, like his unfortunate father before him, canada goose outlet reviews to be on the losing side.[41] Seven men met to draft the invitation to the Protestant Dutch Stadtholder, William, Prince of Orange, to invade England and assume the throne. The signatories to the letter included Whigs, Tories, and the Bishop of London, Henry Compton, who assured the Prince that, “Nineteen parts of twenty of the people. are desirous of change.”[42] William needed no further encouragement. Although the invitation was not signed by Churchill (he was not, as yet, of sufficient political rank to be a signatory), he declared his intention through William principal English contact in The Hague “If you think there is anything else that I ought to do, you have but to command me.”[43] Churchill, like many others, was looking for an opportune time to desert James. Churchill himself had openly encouraged canada goose vest outlet defection to the Orangist cause, but James continued to hesitate.[45] Soon it was too late to act. I hope the great advantage I enjoy under Your Majesty, which I own I would never expect in any other change of government, may reasonably convince Your Majesty and the world that I am actuated by a higher principle.[46] When the King saw he could not keep even Churchill for so long his loyal and intimate servant he despaired. James II, who in the words of the Archbishop of Rheims, had “given up three kingdoms for a Mass”, fled to France, taking canada goose outlet london uk with him his son and heir.[47] With barely a shot fired, William had secured the throne, reigning as joint sovereign with his wife Mary, James II canada goose outlet store near me eldest daughter. His elevation, however, led to accusatory rumours from King James supporters that Marlborough had disgracefully betrayed his erstwhile king canada goose outlet mall for personal gain; William himself entertained reservations about the man who had deserted James.[48] Marlborough apologists though, including his most notable descendant and biographer Winston Churchill, have been at pains to attribute patriotic, religious, and moral motives to his action; but in the words of Chandler, it is difficult to absolve Marlborough of ruthlessness, ingratitude, intrigue and treachery against a man to whom he owed virtually everything in his life and career to date.[49] Marlborough in his thirties, attributed to John Riley. The Star of the Order of the Garter was added after 1707. Marlborough first official act was to assist in the remodelling of the army the power of confirming or purging officers and men gave the Earl the opportunity to build a new patronage network which would prove beneficial over the next two decades.[50] His task was urgent, for less than six months after James II departure, England joined the war against France as part of a powerful coalition aimed at curtailing the ambitions of Louis XIV. With his experience it was logical that Marlborough took charge of the 8,000 British troops sent to the Low Countries in the spring of 1689; yet throughout the Nine Years War (1688 97) he saw only three years service in the field, and then mostly in subordinate commands. However, at the Battle of Walcourt on 25 August canada goose outlet store uk 1689 Marlborough won praise from the Allied commander, Prince Waldeck “. despite his youth he displayed greater military capacity than do most generals after a long series of wars. He is assuredly one of the most gallant men I know.”[51] In recognition of his skill and valour William awarded him the lucrative buy canada goose uk colonelcy of the 7th Foot (later the Royal Fusiliers). Since Walcourt, though, Marlborough popularity at court had waned.[52] William and Mary distrusted both Lord and Lady Marlborough influence as confidants and supporters of Princess Anne (whose claim to the throne was stronger than canada goose outlet William Sarah had supported Anne in a series of court disputes with the joint monarchs, infuriating Mary who included the Earl in her disfavour of his scheming wife.[53] Yet for the moment the clash of tempers were over shadowed by more pressing events in Ireland where James had landed in March 1689 in an attempt to regain his thrones. In August Marlborough himself left for Ireland engaged upon his first independent command a land/sea operation upon the southern ports of Cork and Kinsale. Although the campaign did not end the war in Ireland as Marlborough hoped, it taught him the significance of the minutiae of logistics, and the importance of cooperation and tact when working alongside other senior Allied commanders. It would, however, be more than ten years before he once again took charge in the field.[55] William III recognised Marlborough qualities as a soldier and strategist, but the refusal of the Order of the Garter and failure to appoint him Master General of the Ordnance, rankled with the ambitious Earl; nor did Marlborough conceal his bitter disappointment behind his usual bland discretion.[56] Using his influence in Parliament and the army, Marlborough aroused dissatisfaction concerning William preferences for foreign commanders, an exercise designed to force the King hand.[57] Aware of this, William in turn began to speak openly of his distrust of Marlborough; the Elector of Brandenburg envoy to London overheard the King remark that he had been treated “so infamously by Marlborough that, had he not been king, he would have felt it necessary to challenge him to a duel.” Since January 1691 Marlborough had been in contact with the exiled James II in Saint Germain, anxious canada goose outlet vip to obtain the erstwhile King pardon for deserting him in 1688 a pardon essential for the success of his future career in the not altogether unlikely event of a Jacobite restoration.[59] James himself maintained contact with his supporters.

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