May 292013
 

un trattato per le multinazionali

Nel 1993 il presidente Clinton all’inizio del moncler outlet serravalle suo primo mandato creò una coalizione trasversale ai partiti per far approvare il trattato di libero scambio del Nord America (Nafta), contro l’opposizione dei sindacati e del populista Ross Perot. Nonostante le bieche previsioni dei critici, seguirono molti anni di forte crescita.

Quest’anno il presidente Obama sta cercando di fare lo stesso con moncler bambino outlet il trattato di libero scambio transatlantico (Ttip). Ma è piumini moncler alla fine del suo secondo mandato, ha l’opposizione dichiarata di tutti i candidati presidenziali rimasti, compresa Hillary Clinton che inizialmente si era schierata a favore, e sta incontrando una forte resistenza anche in Europa (la maggioranza dei tedeschi è contraria al trattato). forse un segno del populismo crescente?

Non necessariamente. Tradizionalmente, i trattati di libero scambio riducevano le tariffe doganali. Ma oggi tra gli Stati Uniti e l’Unione Europea queste moncler outlet online shop tariffe non esistono quasi più. Quelle più importanti sono le barriere non tariffarie. Ed è qui che si moncler outlet concentra il Ttip. Ma dove finisce una regola a protezione dell’ambiente e dove comincia una barriera non tariffaria?

In questo senso, un aspetto moncler outlet online uomo positivo del Ttip è l’apertura forzata degli appalti governativi ai concorrenti d’oltreoceano. Questo ridurrà la spesa pubblica da entrambe i lati dell’oceano. Trova molto più opposizione, invece, il meccanismo di risoluzione delle controversie outlet moncler stato imprese (Isds) contenuto nel moncler saldi uomo trattato. Il Ttip vorrebbe trasferire tutte le controversie ad arbitrati inappellabili, al di fuori delle corti dei singoli paesi. Questo meccanismo è spesso usato nei trattati bilaterali con i paesi in via di sviluppo, dove gli investitori esteri non si fidano dell’imparzialità delle corti locali. Ma quale ne sarebbe la moncler donna funzione tra Stati Uniti ed Europa? La paura è che elimini totalmente la capacità di uno stato di moncler saldi outlet scegliere regole diverse dagli altri. Per esempio, Vattenfall, una società di energia svedese, ha fatto causa al governo tedesco che aveva deciso di chiudere tutte le centrali nucleari dopo Fukushima. Col piumini moncler scontatissimi nuovo meccanismo Vattenfall avrebbe vittoria facile, perché la decisione di proibire il nucleare può configurarsi come restrizione al commercio internazionale. In ballo, però, non c’è tanto il libero scambio, ma il concetto di sovranità nazionale. A volte questa sovranità è abusata o serve a difendere i privilegi di pochi. Ma non per questo la soluzione migliore è una totale rinuncia.

L’ ISDS non piace neppure alle piccole e medie piumini moncler outlet imprese. Temono che solo le grandi multinazionali abbiano le risorse per intentare questo tipo di cause contro stati esteri. Questo concederà loro un vantaggio. Da qui la crescente opposizione al Ttip in Germania, un paese non certo contrario alla globalizzazione, ma ricco di piumini moncler uomo piccole moncler outlet trebaseleghe e moncler saldi medie imprese.

Ma moncler bambino saldi quello che rende il Ttip impopolare è la segretezza che lo circonda. Una certa riservatezza nella fase iniziale di negoziazione era comprensibile, ma nella fase di approvazione la segretezza del contenuto è assolutamente antidemocratica e favorisce le peggiori interpretazioni. D’altra parte lo stesso Adam Smith, padre della scienza economica, scriveva: Raramente la gente dello stesso settore si ritrova insieme, anche solo per motivi di svago e di piumini moncler saldi divertimento, senza che la conversazione finisca in una cospirazione contro l’interesse pubblico o in un qualche espediente per aumentare i prezzi. Perché dovrebbe essere diverso con il Ttip?

Il Ttip riguarda più la protezione degli interessi delle imprese negli altri stati, che il libero scambio per sé. Essere critici del Ttip, quindi, non vuol dire essere contro moncler outlet trebaseleghe la globalizzazione: anche Jagdish Bhagwati, un economista internazionale famoso per le sue posizioni liberiste, ha moncler uomo espresso le sue riserve. Essere critici del Ttip vuol solo dire essere consapevoli che l’interesse commerciale dei grandi gruppi non coincide necessariamente con l’interesse nazionale e che la trasparenza moncleroutlet-i è una condizione necessaria (anche se purtroppo non sufficiente) affinché il processo democratico riduca la differenza tra i due.

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